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    The design of switched-mode power supplies (widely used in household and industrial applications) is often based on the principle that the mains alternating voltage is first rectified and smoothed with the use of capacitors, meaning that it is converted to direct voltage (DC), and then with a high frequency and efficiency is converted to required output voltage. Such a solution, however, has an undesirable side effect. Smoothing capacitors are recharged by short current pulses at moments when the mains voltage is close to peak value.

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